Rossburg was platted by John G. Ross in 1868. In its early years, the community was also known as “Hagerman”; under this name a post office was established in the community on December 19, 1883, and it operated under this name until November 4, 1905. The village was very small until a period of growth began circa 1883, when a predecessor of the Cincinnati, Jackson and Mackinaw Railroad built a railroad line through Rossburg.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.14 square miles (0.36 km2), all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 201 people, 77 households, and 58 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,435.7 inhabitants per square mile (554.3 /km2). There were 81 housing units at an average density of 578.6 per square mile (223.4 /km2). The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population.
There were 77 households of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 24.7% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.03.
The median age in the village was 39.8 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.5% were from 25 to 44; 30.5% were from 45 to 64; and 10.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 50.7% male and 49.3% female.